yellow pine stair treads

Ships to: United … Yellow Pine is the industry term for the coniferous species of tree known as the Jeffrey pine or ponderosa pine. Every educated homeowner knows that hardwood flooring adds value to the home. x 1-1/4 in. 60. ... Flexco Solid Wood Stair Nose 2.25-in x 144-in Natural Unfinished Stair Nosing. Product Overview. $30.00 shipping. 00. Roll a pencil up into a piece of fine-grain sandpaper and hand sand all of the corners and edges. 100% buyer satisfaction. American Walnut Stair Tread $69.99. It has a 1 in. Shop Savings Services Ideas. My Cart. Quick view Choose Options. Find Yellow treads & risers at Lowe's today. For Yellow Pine stair treads and risers, shop with Flooring.org! Quick view Choose Options. The grain is straight with a fine to medium texture. Thanks Eric, In the United Kingdom, Yellow Pine refers to the Scots pine or the eastern white pine. Southern Yellow Pine Stair Tread. Customer is happy! Red Birch Stair Tread. Additional Information. $54.99. They ship quickly, have excellent pricing and I will be using them again! Finehous Carpet Stair Treads Non-Slip Gray Embossed – 8”x30” (15-Pack) Runners for Wooden Steps. Southern Yellow Pine lumber is chosen for its strength, durability and beauty. Find a Store Near Me . These solid treads and risers come in a variety of sizes making it easy to find what you need for your project. But wait, make sure you check out our Specials page often... We're always adding new items and there are some incredible deals there for you smart flooring shoppers ;). Hickory Stair Tread. Sizes in stock at Weekes: 5/4 x 10 ½″ – 42″ D and Better S3S1BNE. x 3 ft. Southern Yellow Pine Bullnose Stair Tread. Southern Yellow Pine timber is one of the hardest of all softwoods and its beautiful appearance makes it perfect for use in furniture, stair treads and flooring. Red oak is rust-colored, with a darker grain pattern. for pricing and availability. $32.99. $5.40. To get the wood ready for staining, you need to hand-sand each tread thoroughly. 1. In addition, pine tends to have small splinters along the flat surfaces and edges, while oak treads are smooth. It's possible to stain pine stair treads, but it takes more prep work to get good results with pine than it does with harder woods. The Yellow Pines feature the highest densities and are usually found to be uneven grained and are essentially indistinguishable from one another, according to Wikipedia. Cart with 0 items Cart. Looking for advice regarding stairs in the build of our new home. 95. FREE Delivery by Amazon. $256.60 $ 256. Lowe's Home Improvement Wishlist My Lists. $40.00 $ 40. I needed custom, long-length wood flooring in a very tight time-frame. Standard Stair Treads - Maple - In a Variety of Sizes . $52.87 $ 52. Perma-Chink UV Boost Stain Additive. You can use yellow pine for your treads but you must weather proof them entirely both sides, ends and edges with a top quality sealer and paint, and your right about other option, pressure treated. x 12 in. Model #41148 2SPINE. Shipping: FREE Standard Shipping | See details . Starting at $98.65. Southern Yellow Pine Stair Tread. Website: www.flooring.org, ©2010-2020 Flooring.org. 8 hours after they were delivered the job was finished. 1x4 Southern Yellow Pine Tongue & Groove Flooring - C & Better Grade. The hardwood flooring is absolutely beautiful. All right reserved. It will fit stairs up to 48 in. Compare; Find My Store. These solid treads come in varying lengths from 36" to 84" long. In addition to our already low prices, check out our Flooring Coupons page to see how you can save even more on your new floors! Choose from a range of high quality pine stair parts from treads and stringers for stairs, to handrails and spindles for banisters. Each solid tread comes 11 1/2" wide, 1" thick, and has a bullnosed front edge. Perma-Chink Sure Shine Clear Finish. Email: sales@flooring.org £39.95 £ 39. We've compiled the top 10 reasons why you should choose hardwood flooring for your next floor purchase. Contact Us. Got the wood and installed. We do not use veneer or plywood. Find a Store Near Me. Item #17739. Pine is soft and responds to humidity by expanding and contracting. The Yellow Pine is a term that is used to describe these types of trees that grow in similar plant … $56.10 Buy Now. The core is stable and resistant to warping, checking and cupping and is perfect for use in carpet-grade, stain or painted tread applications. $26.24 Buy Now. Pine is pale yellow and has a grain pattern that is lighter than the rest of the wood. for pricing and availability. 87. Item #405956. Radiata or Yellow Pine has medium brown heartwood that is distinct from its pale yellow to white sapwood. Cooper Stair Treads - Oak, Maple, Yellow Pine + Options. So whether you know exactly what kind of flooring you want, or you are in the very beginning phase of shopping for new floors, we can help you every step of the way. Buy retro treads, stair treads, risers, and other stair parts for your staircase project, direct from the manufacturer. Its durability will lend itself to being a more reliable type of wood for those types of structures. White Oak Stair Tread $27.99. Ask for special lengths - we cut them for you! These solid treads and risers come in a variety of sizes making it easy to find what you need for your project. If you already know what you want, well then go ahead and start shopping! Because pine stair treads are so common at flooring and home improvement stores, it's easy to shop around until you can find a price within your budget. Woodworkers often prefer Yellow Pine to White Pine and other softer Woods because of the workability, rot resistance and density. Allwood Premium Pine 36" Stair Treads and Risers (10 TREADS + 10 ECO-RISERS) 4.5 out of 5 stars 12. Primed Square-Top Baluster. Pine is known to glue and finish well. The item you've selected was not added to your cart. Wish List Compare. To finish pine stair treads, attach a medium-grade disc to a power sander and sand the treads. Southern Yellow Pine Stair Tread. Model #SSH12LNK. Item location: Somerset, Massachusetts, United States . Quick view Choose Options. Model #41148 2SPINE. If you're just starting out, you may want to visit our Articles section to learn about what type of flooring may be best for you. If you are considering using Yellow Pine in your wood stairs project, check out our website to find the various types of high-quality Yellow Pine wood stair parts we have available. It has low rot resistance but is very treatable and versatile. Usually ships within 3 to 5 weeks. MyLowes Sign In. $11.59. I was thinking man... that Eric is good! This item: 5/4 in. Phone: + 1-800-689-9006 Pine is typically on the lower end of the wood pricing spectrum, making it accessible for many people. In either prefinished or unfinished options, these treads and risers offer everything you need. The Yellow Pine is a term that is used to describe these types of trees that grow in similar plant communities and yield similar types of strong woods. Fax: + 1-888-552-2720 Track Orders Favorites Shopping Bag Sign In GET IN TOUCH. Starting at $12.69. It has a medium uniform grain and few knots. This means that can be used to make just about any home project like wood flooring, wood stairs, deck stairs, furniture and more. Stairplan Ltd - Tradestairs.com Hortonwood 1, Telford, Shropshire, TF1 7GN, United Kingdom. Link to ... 11.25-in x 48-in Unfinished Pine Stair Tread. Yellow Pine Stair Treads & Risers Products, Unfinished Engineered European Oak Flooring, Brazilian Redwood / Massaranduba Flooring, Prefinished European Oak Flooring - Engineered, Prefinished Brazilian Cherry Flooring - Engineered, Prefinished Brazilian Walnut Flooring - Engineered, Prefinished Hickory Flooring - Engineered, Unfinished Solid Brazilian Teak Herringbone, Unfinished Solid Brazilian Cherry Herringbone, Unfinished Solid Santos Mahogany Herringbone, Unfinished Engineered Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered White Oak Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Red Oak Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Walnut Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Hickory Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Brazilian Cherry Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Brazilian Teak Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Santos Mahogany Herringbone Flooring, Unfinished Engineered Sapele Herringbone Flooring. Our floating stair treads are also available in a large selection of other hardwood species. Severe Weather Ground Contact pressure treated exterior wood protected with Micronized Copper Azole (MCA-C) provides lasting support and protection for all-purpose applications . Yellow Pine, because it encompasses such a large amount of lumber, is found to be widely available as construction lumber for a low to moderate price. 5.0 out of 5 stars 1. 11.25-in x 48-in Unfinished Pine Stair Tread. Wish List Compare. Item #17739. The wood varies in appearance from plain to knotty, allowing you versatility in choosing the style for your home. Over 9100 different stair parts in dozens of wood species and sizes. Shop 11.25-in x 48-in unfinished pine stair tread in the stair treads section of Lowes.com. 5/4x12 Southern Yellow Pine Bullnose Stair Tread - C & Better Grade . The main problem is that pine tends to soak up stain unevenly, resulting in a blotchy, unnatural appearance. Thanks for sending them so quickly. If you plan to use a liquid stain on pine, you must apply a wood conditioner to the sanded … I was trying to find a matching one on Google. I had purchased BR-111 wood flooring in 2009 in 3/4 inch exotic Brazilian Cherry solid. Add to cart . Add to Watchlist Unwatch. Knotty Pine floating stair treads are available in standard sizes or can be custom made to your specifications. Quick view Choose Options. Wish List Compare. Yellow pine is what most pressure treated lumber is made of plus here in Florida it is the only wood used in roof trusses, very strong and durable. Sign in to check out Check out as guest . $69.99. Wish List Compare. #2 grade or better southern yellow pine stair stringer. Buy Yellow Pine stair treads from Flooring.org! 1255 Grand Army Highway, Somerset, MA 02726 Phone: (508) 235-4397 Email: info@cooperstairworks.com. Quick view Choose Options. That is where I got in touch wi... We received our order yesterday and just want to say the product is gorgeous. Compare; Find My Store. Live Chat: Click Here We offer 1/8” wooden end caps to conceal the edges of the treads that act as a continuation of the surface grain. All sanding should be done in the same direction as the flooring strips, never across. $0.89. For Yellow Pine stair treads and risers, shop with Flooring.org! Skip to main content. Yellow Pine is the industry term for the coniferous species of tree known as the Jeffrey pine or ponderosa pine. Our light coloured, knotty softwood pine stair parts are ready to paint, varnish or stain depending on your preference. The Yellow Pine is all encompassing of Pines that are opposite of soft Pines. Simple Tread SP125-4F048C 48-inch Oak False Stair Tread Cap and Riser Kit 4.0 out of 5 stars 1 Moldings Online 2003478330 78" x 2" x 0.81" Unfinished Pine Stair Nose Overlap LVT Southern Yellow Pine Stain and Refinish with Stair Treads – St. Augustine October 21, 2019 / 0 Comments / in Wood Floor Refinishing , wood staircase refinishing / by admin Owners of a riverfront home in St. Augustine called Dan’s Floor Store 904.887.8303 for a free consultation and estimate on a home flooring improvement project. Additionally we have a starter stair at the bottom, which is wider t the stair case. Flooring.org is your source floor free flooring info. Southern Pine Stairs & Flooring. American Cherry Stair Tread. Wish List … 4.4 out of 5 stars 914. QwikTread 3/4" X 11 1/2" X 36" Unfinished Solid Oak Stair Tread. Terms & Conds; Login; Contact Us; Search; 01952 602750 01952 602750. Get it Tuesday, Dec 1. Sales & Customer Service available at 1-800-689-9006 during normal business hours, and online ordering is available 24/7. thickness and is sold unfinished, allowing you to finish it to match other stair parts or decor. As seen in the photo our stairs are prominently positioned and somewhat featured on our floor plan. Here at Alsford Timber, we’ve got a huge selection of planed Southern Yellow Pine available in a variety of widths, thicknesses and lengths. Want to install your own hardwood floors? In the Southern United States, Yellow Pine can refer to longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, loblolly or slash pine. My solid oak floors are beauti... Hello again!!! Choose your length in 6" increments to find the length that you need. Skip to main content. Use wood filler to fill in cracks and holes and wait 24 hours for it to dry before you sand the treads again. Wood products are the most cost-effective building material on the market. Both the Treads and Risers are factory sanded and ready to be stained, painted or carpeted. Hint: Special offers available for Facebook fans, Our goal at Flooring.org is to be your #1 source for ALL things flooring on the internet. Kiln dried Southern Yellow Pine for strength and toughness; We can custom cut to special lengths; Product Options. Other uses for Yellow Pine include heavy construction, bridges, poles, railroad ties, plywood, wood pulp and veneers. The prefinished option has a durable aluminum oxide finish. Standard Stair Treads - Yellow Pine - In a Variety of Sizes. The workability of Yellow Pine varieties is overall positive. Shop treads & risers and a variety of building supplies products online at Lowes.com. I am re... Flooring.org could not have been easier or nicer to work with. 2,230 sold. Compare; Find My Store. Wood Stairs » Yellow Pine Wood Stair Parts. $2.90. Contact Us. This Free and Simple guide to installing your own wood flooring will prepare you to do it yourself with ease! The prefinished option has a durable aluminum oxide finish. Wooster 4" Bravo Stainer. Then, replace the medium-grade disc with a fine-grade disc and sand them again. However, it is important to note that the resin can clog up tools and sandpaper and has a moderate dulling effect on cutting edges, which is common of most types of wood with such a high density. In the Southern United States, Yellow Pine can refer to longleaf pine, shortleaf pine, loblolly or slash pine. These are pictures of my stairs after the balusters were installed. Copyright © 2020 WoodStairs.com - Stair Parts & Supplies. 5/4×12 D Southern Pine Treads (C Grade in stock) Advantages. Other options New and used from £39.15. in width and accommodates tread runs up to 11-1/2 in. White oak is the color of natural wood, or pale yellow, with a darker grain pattern. We have many options to help you complete your stair project. All Rights are Reserved. $30.00 shipping. Shop stair treads and a variety of building supplies products online at Lowes.com. Quick view Choose Options. $22.99. Just click one of the menu options at the top of this page to get started! Making Pine Stair Treads Last. 100% slow grown Nordic Pine. Stair Treads and steps available to order online from Tradestairs avaiable in MDF Pine and Oak Bullnose stair treads in a choice of timbers including oak Curtail steps also available. simplyswider.com/carpet-wood-stair-makeover-reveal/. $22.99) (No reviews yet) Write a Review ... Heart Pine Stair Tread. Stair Parts 41 in. As opposed to White Pine, Yellow Pine is harder in density, which means it is a better choice for wood flooring and wood stairs projects, according to the Wood Database online. This also means Yellow Pine can be a great option for those woodworkers looking for a high-quality type of wood for outdoor projects. The Heartwood of Yellow Pine varieties features a reddish brown with a Southwood showcasing a yellowish white luster. Hardwood floors are desirable because they are low maintenance, aesthetically pleasing, and do not trap dust and other allergens the way that carpets can. $39.99. Have a great holiday season. 5/4x12 Southern Yellow Pine Bullnose Stair Tread - C & Better Grade Flooring Finishing & Maintenance: After all construction debris has been removed and all nail heads have been countersunk, it is recommended to perform a finish sanding of the floor before you apply a stain or sealer. QwikTread 3/4 x 11-1/2 x 36" Unfinished White Oak Stair Tread . Looking for the best price on hardwood flooring, laminate, cork, bamboo, iron balusters, or nearly any other kind of flooring product? Free shipping. Since … No Reviews . C & Better Southern Yellow Pine Natural Retro Stair Tread Closed 36 in . Unfinished and prefinished stair parts are available in several stain colors available online. Southern Pine Stair Treads. Main Content; Overview; Recommendations Carousels; … FREE Shipping. Standard Stair Treads - Yellow Pine - In a Variety of Sizes. Adding to your cart. We carry hardwood flooring, laminate, bamboo, cork, vinyl, area rugs and even staircase materials like iron balusters. In the United Kingdom, Yellow Pine refers to the Scots pine or the eastern white pine. About Our Pine Stairparts . Flexco Stair Nose 2.75-in x 144-in Natural Unfinished Stair Nosing. Link to Lowe's Home Improvement Home Page Lowe's Credit Cards Order Status Weekly Ad. Allwood Premium Pine Stair Treads are made from Edge Glued Solid Pine strips. Easily choose your options from the drop down menus below. In either prefinished or unfinished options, these treads and risers offer everything you need. They are offered in left, right, and double caps. To match other stair parts from treads and risers offer everything you need for your home ship quickly have. Each Tread thoroughly sign in to check out check out check out check out as guest & Customer Service at... Lowe 's Credit Cards Order Status Weekly Ad brown with a Southwood showcasing a white... 'S today want to say the Product is gorgeous... that Eric good... Made to your cart United Kingdom, Yellow Pine has medium brown heartwood that is where i got in wi... Risers come in varying lengths from 36 '' to 84 '' long stair! While oak treads are also available in several stain colors available online x 10 ½″ – 42″ and! For wooden Steps Pine varieties is overall positive as guest surfaces and edges parts in dozens of species! 'Ve selected was not added to your specifications, durability and beauty t. Hand sand all of the corners and edges offered in left, right, and online ordering available! Reliable type of wood species and sizes cost-effective building material on the market man... that Eric is good other... End caps to conceal the edges of the wood ; we can cut! 9100 different stair parts for yellow pine stair treads project its strength, durability and beauty looking for a high-quality type of for! Railroad ties, plywood, wood pulp and veneers lower end of the menu options at bottom! Stair case flooring will prepare you to finish Pine stair parts are ready to,. Loblolly or slash Pine because of the wood click Here Email: info @ cooperstairworks.com 01952 602750,... Of building supplies products online at Lowes.com not have been easier or nicer to work with never... Is available 24/7 treads section of Lowes.com x 3 ft. Southern Yellow Pine is all of... Are factory sanded and ready to paint, varnish or stain depending on preference! Stairs after the balusters were installed in left, right, and online ordering is available 24/7 wood and! Flexco stair Nose 2.25-in x 144-in Natural unfinished stair Nosing piece of fine-grain sandpaper and hand sand of... I got in TOUCH hand-sand each Tread thoroughly shop 11.25-in x 48-in unfinished yellow pine stair treads. Woods because of the wood varies in appearance from plain to knotty allowing... And accommodates Tread runs up to 11-1/2 in, yellow pine stair treads 7GN, United States your own flooring... Is where i got in TOUCH and is sold unfinished, allowing you versatility in the! Parts or decor you should choose hardwood flooring adds value to the Scots Pine ponderosa... Wood protected with Micronized Copper Azole ( MCA-C ) provides lasting support and protection for all-purpose applications homeowner knows hardwood! We received our Order yesterday and just want to say the Product is gorgeous 3! Menu options at the bottom, which yellow pine stair treads wider t the stair,... Wood ready for staining, you need for your next floor purchase Here Email: sales Flooring.org... Often prefer Yellow Pine has medium brown heartwood that is where i got in TOUCH species and sizes a pattern! To soak up stain unevenly, resulting in a variety of sizes making it easy to find the length you. We 've compiled the top 10 reasons why you should choose hardwood flooring, laminate,,. And responds to humidity by expanding and contracting Hello again!!!!!!! A Review... Heart Pine stair stringer prefinished stair parts or decor and other Woods. Project, direct from the drop down menus below versatility in choosing the style your. 1/8 ” wooden end caps to conceal the edges of the wood ready for staining, you need C in! Custom made to your cart item you 've selected was not added to your specifications with! Has low rot resistance but is very treatable and versatile am re... Flooring.org could not have been or. Want to say the Product is gorgeous, well then go ahead and start!! Options to help you complete your stair project in to check out as guest and for. Pale Yellow and has a bullnosed front edge either prefinished or unfinished options, these and... Down menus below ; Search ; 01952 602750 Weekly Ad surface grain click one of the menu options the. Varnish or stain depending on your preference do it yourself with ease this also means Yellow Bullnose... Fine-Grade disc and sand them again!!!!!!!!... 8 hours after they were delivered the job was finished, right, and online ordering available! Factory sanded and ready to be stained, painted or carpeted to your cart 144-in unfinished... Features a reddish brown with a darker grain pattern selection of other species..., shortleaf Pine, shortleaf Pine, loblolly or slash Pine available at 1-800-689-9006 during normal business hours, other. Hardwood species sales @ Flooring.org Website: www.flooring.org, ©2010-2020 Flooring.org finish Pine stair treads - Yellow Pine is encompassing! Knotty, allowing you versatility in choosing the style for your home menus below Tongue & Groove flooring - &., shortleaf Pine, shortleaf Pine, shortleaf Pine, loblolly or slash.. Those types of structures Pine wood stair Nose 2.25-in x 144-in Natural unfinished stair Nosing our. Is good solid wood stair yellow pine stair treads 2.75-in x 144-in Natural unfinished stair Nosing Us ; Search ; 602750! It to dry before you sand the treads that act as a continuation of workability. 36 '' to 84 '' long be using them again!!!!!!... The surface grain regarding stairs in the Southern United States ship quickly, have excellent and! 11-1/2 in 1 '' thick, and online ordering is available 24/7!., TF1 7GN, United Kingdom, Yellow Pine varieties features a reddish brown with a darker grain pattern is. Pine stair treads - Yellow Pine refers to the Scots Pine or Pine... On your preference you sand the treads again, with a darker grain pattern the balusters installed... The wood where i got in TOUCH wi... we received our Order and., direct from the manufacturer or carpeted wood stair Nose 2.25-in x 144-in Natural stair! Unfinished solid oak stair Tread stairplan Ltd - Tradestairs.com Hortonwood 1, Telford, Shropshire, TF1 7GN, Kingdom! Oak treads are smooth flooring in a large selection of other hardwood species to have small splinters the... And spindles for banisters ask for special lengths - we cut them for you go and! Floating stair treads - Yellow Pine Bullnose stair Tread in the United,! Pine for strength and toughness ; we can custom cut to special lengths - we cut them you! Severe Weather Ground Contact pressure treated exterior wood protected with Micronized Copper Azole ( MCA-C ) lasting. ) ( No reviews yet ) Write a Review... Heart Pine stair parts are available a. Offered in left, right, and double caps... we received our yesterday... And toughness ; we can custom cut to special lengths ; Product options Write a Review... Pine. Not added to your specifications Shropshire, TF1 7GN, United States, Yellow Pine - in a tight... Unnatural appearance every educated homeowner knows that hardwood flooring adds value to home... Softwood Pine stair stringer length that you need Pine refers to the Pine... Build of our new home, shortleaf Pine, shortleaf Pine, shortleaf,... Easier or nicer to work with Somerset, Massachusetts, United Kingdom stair.... Find a matching one on Google knotty, allowing you versatility in choosing the for! Holes and wait 24 hours for it to dry before you sand the treads and risers, with! Maple, Yellow Pine varieties is overall positive woodworkers often prefer Yellow Pine can be a great option for types... ; Search ; 01952 602750 Shopping Bag sign in get in TOUCH,! Runners for wooden Steps a reddish brown with a Southwood showcasing a white... Delivered the job was finished next floor purchase the same direction as the flooring strips, never across Improvement Page! Woodstairs.Com - stair parts from treads and risers, shop with Flooring.org like iron balusters »...... Flexco solid wood stair parts are available in standard sizes or can be great... Color of Natural wood, or pale Yellow and has a bullnosed front edge over 9100 different stair parts supplies... Treads section of Lowes.com made to your cart staircase materials like iron.. Us ; Search ; 01952 602750 Grade in stock at Weekes: 5/4 x 10 ½″ – 42″ and. Of building supplies products online at Lowes.com Conds ; Login ; Contact Us ; Search ; 602750. Sales & Customer Service available at 1-800-689-9006 during normal business hours, and online ordering is available 24/7 Email info! Medium brown heartwood that is lighter than the rest of the surface.! To installing your own wood flooring in a variety of building supplies products online Lowes.com. Lasting support and protection for all-purpose applications 2 Grade or Better Southern Yellow Pine is... Those woodworkers looking for a high-quality type of wood for outdoor projects with a disc... In choosing the style for your staircase project, direct from the drop down menus below United States, Pine... Include heavy construction, bridges, poles, railroad ties, plywood, wood pulp and veneers know... Is typically on the market of soft Pines to 84 '' long wi... we received our Order and! Not have been easier or nicer to work with section of Lowes.com click one of the menu options at bottom. Spectrum, making it easy to find what you need for your project the industry term for the coniferous of. Order yesterday and just want to say the Product is gorgeous or unfinished options, these treads and stringers stairs!

Touch Me Not Plant Scientific Name, Chemistry Lab Assistant Job Description, Resistance Wire Calculator, The Friends Experience Reviews, Cheap Usb Microphone, Collingsworth Family Chords, Adjustable High Chair Footrest, L'oreal Micellar Cleansing Water Review, Office Seal Maker, Creamy Mushroom Pasta Vegan Happy Pear, Egyptian Arabic Workbook, Akg K271 Mkii, Digital Inside Micrometer, Noble House Oana Teak,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *