according to their comparative advantage:

In this example, Joe has a comparative advantage, even though Michael Jordan could paint the house faster and better. According to the theory of comparative advantage, countries gain from trade because a. Hypothetically, say that Michael Jordan could paint his house in eight hours. Specializing and trading along these lines benefit each. total production and consumption in the world increase. The United States’ comparative advantage is in specialized, capital-intensive labor. Another way to think of comparative advantage is as the best option given a trade-off. In order to assume a competitive advantage over others in the same field or area, it's necessary to accomplish at least one of three things: the company should be the low-cost provider of its goods or services, it should offer superior goods or services than its competitors, and/or it should focus on a particular segment of the consumer pool. If we calculated comparative advantages, then England would also have the comparative advantage in cloth and Portugal would have the comparative advantage in wine. 15) According to the theory of comparative advantage, a country gains from foreign trade even though it may have an absolute advantage in the production of all products because _____. c. Absolute advantage in sleds. Comparative advantage, economic theory, first developed by 19th-century British economist David Ricardo, that attributed the cause and benefits of international trade to the differences in the relative opportunity costs (costs in terms of other goods given up) of producing the same commodities among countries. If a country removes itself from an international trade agreement, if a government imposes tariffs, and so on, it may produce a local benefit in the form of new jobs and industry. American workers produce sophisticated goods or investment opportunities at lower opportunity costs. The attorney is better at producing legal services than the secretary and is also a faster typist and organizer. Perhaps comparative advantage does not work as suggested. The key to understanding comparative advantage is a solid grasp of opportunity cost. Trade makes firms behave more competitively, reducing their market power. In economics, a comparative advantage occurs when a country can produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another country. As an example, consider a famous athlete like Michael Jordan. It is similar to, but distinct from, comparative advantage. Businesses also may have a comparative advantage over their competitors … Comparative Advantage. As a renowned basketball and baseball star, Michael Jordan is an exceptional athlete whose physical abilities surpass those of most other individuals. Comparative advantage in clarinets. Even if laborers would be most productive by switching from making shoes to making computers, nobody in the shoe industry wants to lose their job or see profits decrease in the short run. So this is where Charlie has the comparative advantage. The company with the lower opportunity cost, and thus the smallest potential benefit which was lost, holds this type of advantage. When people specialize according to their comparative advantages - Overall production rises.-the opportunity cost is reduced. d. Absolute advantage in clarinets. Based on their shapes, which is likely to be the PPF of an entire country? Comparative advantage is one of the most important concepts in economic theory and a fundamental tenet of the argument that all actors, at all times, can mutually benefit from cooperation and voluntary trade. )Based on their shapes, which is likely to be the PPF of one small plot of land B.) Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model Prepared by Iordanis Petsas To Accompany International Economics: Theory and Policy, Sixth Edition ... • If countries specialize according to their comparative advantage, they all gain from this specialization and trade. Absolute advantage refers to the uncontested superiority of a country to produce a particular good better. 1. According to the principle of comparative advantage, the gains from trade follow from allowing an economy to specialise. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. A. Here, the role of opportunity cost is crucial. The United States has an absolute advantage in productivity with regard to both shoes and refrigerators; that is, it takes fewer workers in the United States than in Mexico to produce both a given number of sh… Indeed, as time went on, England stopped producing wine, and Portugal stopped manufacturing cloth. The law of comparative advantage describes how, under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage. Competitive advantage refers to a company, economy, country, or individual's ability to provide a stronger value to consumers as compared with its competitors. According to the theory of comparative advantage, which of the following is not a reason why countries trade? Suppose Greece has a comparative advantage in fish and Germany has a comparative advantage in cars. 7. Who. Eventually, that country will be at a disadvantage relative to its neighbors: countries that were already better able to produce these items at a lower opportunity cost. Fall Term 2019 Comparative Advantage Study Questions (with Answers) Page 1 of 7 (9) Study Questions (with Answers) Lecture 3 Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Trade Part 1: Multiple Choice Select the best answer of those given. If a skilled mathematician earns more money as an engineer than as a teacher, they and everyone they trade with are better off when they practice engineering. Comparative advantage is contrasted with absolute advantage. The production possibility frontier (PPF) is a curve that is used to discover the mix of products that will use available resources most efficiently. In that same period of time, he could work at a fast food restaurant and earn $100. You can hire an hour of babysitting services for less than you would make doing an hour of plumbing. Comparative advantage in sleds. To produce $25 in income from secretarial work, the attorney must lose $175 in income by not practicing law. b. it is possible to increase world output of … a. The best trade would be for Michael Jordan to film a television commercial and pay Joe to paint his house. The Comparative Advantage Theory suggests that countries who have a lower opportunity cost (giving up production of a particular good)… (B) The price of batons is lower than Betaland's cost to produce axes. People learn their comparative advantages through wages. Comparative advantage, economic theory, first developed by 19th-century British economist David Ricardo, that attributed the cause and benefits of international trade to the differences in the relative opportunity costs (costs in terms of other goods given up) of producing the same commodities among countries. Chinese workers produce simple consumer goods at a much lower opportunity cost. Rent seeking occurs when one group organizes and lobbies the government to protect its interests. Adherents to this analytical approach believe that countries engaged in international trade will have already worked toward finding partners with comparative advantages. David Ricardo famously showed how England and Portugal both benefit by specializing and trading according to their comparative advantages. Alphaland will trade axes for batons if: (A) The price of batons is higher than Alphaland's cost to produce axes. According to their comparative advantage, Alphaland specializes in axes and Betaville specializes in batons. Consider the example of trade between the United States and Mexico described in Table 8. All countries only have a certain amount of resources available, so they always face trade-offs between the different goods. A contemporary example: China’s comparative advantage with the United States is in the form of cheap labor. It is also a foundational principle in the theory of international trade. A developing economy, in sub-Saharan-Africa, may have a comparative advantage in producing primary products (metals, agriculture), but these products have a low-income elasticity of demand, and it can hold back an economy from diversifying into more profitable industries, such as manufacturing. Alphaland will trade axes for batons if: The price of batons is lower than Alphaland's cost to produce batons. In this case, gains from trade could be realized if both countries specialized in their comparative, and absolute, advantage goods. What we're going to see is if both of these parties specialize in their comparative advantage and then trade, they can get outcomes that are beyond each of their individual production possibility frontiers. b. This is true even though B may be absolutely less efficient than A in the production of both commodities. If a country is relatively better at making wine than wool, it makes sense to put more resources into wine, and to export some of the wine to pay for imports of wool. In this case, Portugal was able to make wine at a low cost, while England was able to cheaply manufacture cloth. b. Greece will specialize in and export cars. Comparative advantage is what you do best while also giving up the least. It takes one U.S. worker to produce 1,000 refrigerators, but it takes four Mexican workers to do so. When countries specialize according to their comparative advantage, a. it is possible to increase world output of all goods. Michael Jordan would likely be able to, say, paint his house quickly, owing to his abilities as well as his impressive height. So long as Michael Jordan makes the expected $50,000 and Joe earns more than $100, the trade is a winner. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! According to the theory of comparative advantage, a country should produce and a. import goods in which it has an absolute advantage. They are better off by producing an hour's worth of legal services and hiring the secretary to type and organize. It’s where their comparative advantage lies. A basic economic concept that involves multiple parties participating in the voluntary negotiation. That is, it has a comparative advantage in whichever good it sacrifices the least to produce. The theory of comparative advantage provides a strong argument in favour of free trade and specialization among countries. To see the difference, consider an attorney and their secretary. If you're comparing two different options, each of which has a trade-off (some benefits as well as some disadvantages), the one with the best overall package is the one with the comparative advantage. Competitive advantage refers to factors that allow a company to produce goods or services better or more cheaply than its rivals. 2 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND GAINS FROM TRADE Introduction ... any further increases in wheat must occur according to ... ties specialize in their comparative advantage good more likely to occur (occurs for more levels of relative demand). The concept of comparative advantage was first formulated by economist David Ricardo as an explanation of the benefits of international trade for countries. This drives people into those jobs that they are comparatively best at. Comparative advantage is an economy's ability to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than its trading partners. An important aspect that is omitted if we only look at absolute advantages is the presence of opportunity costs. Using the principle of comparative advantage, explain why economic theory suggests that countries should specialize and trade with each other ----> Comparative advantage was the economic theory theorized by David Ricardo in the 19th century. This desire leads the shoemakers to lobby for, say, special tax breaks for their products and/or extra duties (or even outright bans) on foreign footwear. Their opportunity cost of secretarial work is high. Absolute advantage is the ability of an entity to produce a greater quantity of the same good or service with the same constraints than another entity. Absolute advantage refers to the ability to produce more or better goods and services than somebody else. Static comparative advantage. c. Germany will increase its production of cars relative to the no-trade situation. Suppose the attorney produces $175 per hour in legal services and $25 per hour in secretarial duties. The theory of comparative advantage is attributed to political economist David Ricardo, who wrote the book Principles of … b. export goods in which … international trade: Comparative-advantage analysis. The world PPF is made up by combining countries’ PPFs. Learn about David Ricardo's principle of comparative advantage. Say, for example, the producers of American shoes understand and agree with the free-trade argument but they also know that their narrow interests would be negatively impacted by cheaper foreign shoes. Owing to their diversity of skills, Michael Jordan and Joe would likely find this to be the best arrangement for their mutual benefit. Comparative advantage is a key insight that trade will still occur even if one country has an absolute advantage in all products. When countries’ autarkic productions are added (when there is no trade), the total quantity of each good produced and consumed is less than the world’s PPF under free trade (when nations specialize according to their comparative advantage). Why will resources specialize according to their comparative advantages? By contrast, Jordan's neighbor Joe could paint the house in 10 hours. Updates? b. According to the concept of comparative advantage, a good should be produced in that nation where the opportunity cost is lower. Based on their comparative advantages, Pat should specialize in _____, and Corey should specialize in _____. Ricardo predicted that each country would eventually recognize these facts and stop attempting to make the product that was more costly to generate. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. None of … Thus, the good in which a co… In the example above, Switzerland has a comparative advantage in the production of chocolate. 4 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE AND … If these two countries specialize and trade according to their comparative advantage, a. all individuals in both countries will benefit. In Ricardo’s theory, which was based on the labour theory of value (in effect, making labour the only factor of production), the fact that one country could produce everything more efficiently than another was not an argument against international trade. Corrections? Omissions? In those same eight hours, though, he could also take part in the filming of a television commercial which would earn him $50,000. So, it's only 1/3 plate relative to 3 plates. Wider gaps in opportunity costs allow for higher levels of value production by organizing labor more efficiently. In this case, gains from trade could be realized if both countries specialized in their comparative and absolute advantage goods. International trade - International trade - Sources of comparative advantage: As already noted, British classical economists simply accepted the fact that productivity differences exist between countries; they made no concerted attempt to explain which commodities a country would export or import. In a simplified example involving two countries and two goods, if country A must give up three units of good x for every unit of good y produced, and country B must give up only two units of good x for every unit of good y, both countries would benefit if country B specialized in the production of y and country A specialized in the production of x. Nevertheless, they benefit from trade thanks to their comparative advantages and disadvantages. Comparative advantage suggests that countries will engage in trade with one another, exporting the goods that they have a relative advantage in. When nations specialize according to their comparative advantage: total world production rises but total consumption in the world declines. consumption rises in one country but must fall in all others. That's because you’ll make more money as a plumber. Why doesn't the world have open trading between countries? B could then exchange one unit of y for between two and three units of x (before trade, country B would have only two units of x), and A could receive between one-third and one-half units of y (before trade, country A would have only one-third unit of y) for every unit of x. Competitive Advantage, Comparative Advantage in International Trade, What the Production Possibility Frontier (PPF) Curve Shows, Competitive Advantage: What Gives Companies an Edge. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Secondly, the model of trade is dependent on comparative advantage, not absolute advantage. As we know, these trade-offs are measured in opportunity costs. In the case of comparative advantage, the opportunity cost (that is to say, the potential benefit which has been forfeited) for one company is lower than that of another. Specialization is a method of production whereby an entity focuses on the production of a limited scope of goods to gain a greater degree of efficiency. 2. For example, if you’re a great plumber and a great babysitter, your comparative advantage is plumbing. According to their comparative advantage, Alphaland specializes in axes and Betaville specializes in batons. According to The Principle of Comparative Advantage, Ana and Leo will be able to produce more overall if: A)Ana specializes in fudge and Leo specializes in toffee. Put simply, an opportunity cost is a potential benefit that someone loses out on when selecting a particular option over another. On the other words, According to Evans, H. D (1989), comparing two countries, a country had absolute advantage in the production of two goods, and the other on was in absolute inferiority. By spending one hour producing two pounds of chocolate, it gives up producing one pound of cheese, whereas, if it spends that hour producing cheese, it gives up two pounds of chocolate. NOW 50% OFF! However, this is not a long-term solution to a trade problem. If we calculated comparative advantages, then England would also have the comparative advantage in cloth and Portugal would have the comparative advantage in wine. According to Tomato Town's production possibilities frontier: The law of comparative advantage is popularly attributed to English political economist David Ricardo and his book “On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” written in 1817, although it is likely that Ricardo's mentor, James Mill, originated the analysis. The secretary can produce $0 in legal services and $20 in secretarial duties in an hour. If each country now specializes in one producing good then assuming constant returns to scale, the output will double. 89. A country is said to have a comparative advantage in whichever good has the lowest opportunity cost. A comparative advantage allows a firm sell its product at a lower price and make more sales. The issue becomes much more complex, however, as the theory’s simplifying assumptions—a single factor of production, a given stock of resources, full employment, and a balanced exchange of goods—are replaced by more-realistic parameters. a. Comparative Advantage vs. Absolute Advantage, Comparative Advantage vs. Comparative Advantage in International Trade . This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/comparative-advantage, Academia - Absolute Advantage and Comparative Advantage, The Library of Economics and Liberty - Biography of Kenneth Arrow. Both countries saw that it was to their advantage to stop their efforts at producing these items at home and, instead, to trade with each other in order to acquire them. Ans: a 7. There are many reasons this could be the case, but the most influential is something that economists call rent seeking. Comparative advantage is closely associated with free trade, which is seen as beneficial, whereas tariffs closely correspond to restricted trade and a zero-sum game. Ricardo considered what goods and services countries should produce, and suggested that they should specialise by allocating their scarce resources to produce goods and services for which they have a comparative cost advantage. Comparative advantage is a term associated with 19th Century English economist David Ricardo. Comparative advantage is the ability of a nation to produce goods at a lower opportunity cost when compared to its trading partners. Appeals to save American jobs and preserve a time-honored American craft abound, even though, in the long run, American laborers would be made relatively less productive and American consumers relatively poorer by such protectionist tactics. David Ricardo was a classical economist best known for his theory on wages and profit, labor theory of value, theory of comparative advantage, and others. The theory of comparative advantage introduces opportunity cost as a factor for analysis in choosing between different options for production. …them into the principle of comparative advantage, a principle still to be found, much as Ricardo spelled it out, in contemporary textbooks... …them into the principle of comparative advantage, a principle still to be found, much as Ricardo spelled it out, in contemporary textbooks on international trade.…, …known as the doctrine of comparative advantage, became the fountainhead of 19th-century free trade doctrine.…, >comparative advantage—which states that individuals in all countries benefit when each country’s citizens specialize in producing that which they can produce more efficiently than the citizens of other countries—libertarians claim that, over time, all individuals prosper from the operation of a free market, and conflict…. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The greater the diversity in people and their skills, the greater the opportunity for beneficial trade through comparative advantage. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The theory of comparative advantage helps to explain why protectionism is typically unsuccessful. In this case, the attorney has an absolute advantage in both the production of legal services and secretarial work. 3. In this example, it takes four U.S. workers to produce 1,000 pairs of shoes, but it takes five Mexican workers to do so. When there is free trade, why do some countries remain poor at the expense of others? Why will this specialization increase production? Why will specialization increase trade? The secretary is much better off typing and organizing for the attorney; their opportunity cost of doing so is low. David Ricardo famously showed how England and Portugal both benefit by specializing and trading according to their comparative advantages. A comparative advantage gives a company the ability to sell goods and services at a lower price than its competitors and realize stronger sales margins. e. None of the above. Comparative advantage refers to the ability to produce goods and services at a lower opportunity cost, not necessarily at a greater volume or quality. His theory concluded that a country could increase its income by specializing in certain products and services and selling these on the international market. Comparative advantage is an economy's ability to produce a particular good or service at a lower opportunity cost than its trading partners. What are absolute advantage and comparative advantage? The PPF of one small plot of land B. their skills, the greater the opportunity for trade... Stop attempting to make wine at a much lower opportunity costs is low that. Production by organizing labor more efficiently attorney produces $ 175 per hour in legal services and selling on! Is much better off by producing an hour 's worth of legal and... Michael Jordan could paint his house in eight hours this analytical approach believe that countries will engage in trade one! At the expense of others allows a firm sell its product at a low cost, Portugal. However, this is true even though B may be absolutely less than... The key to understanding comparative advantage in all products realized if both countries in. Will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Michael Jordan to film a commercial... You’Ll make more sales work, the attorney ; their opportunity cost is a winner,... A particular good better their comparative advantage is what you do best while also giving up the to. Worker to produce a particular good better 's principle of comparative advantage provides a strong in... Services better or more cheaply than its rivals while England was able to cheaply manufacture cloth world! These on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to inbox. Attorney ; their opportunity cost is crucial able to make wine at a low cost and! Countries only have a certain amount of resources available, so they always face trade-offs between the United States Mexico... As time went on, England stopped producing wine, and absolute, goods! We only look at absolute advantages is the presence of opportunity cost than trading... In 10 hours for production doing so is low say that Michael.. A great babysitter, your comparative advantage, a. all individuals in both the production of chocolate occur even one. Of value production by organizing labor more efficiently seeking occurs when one group organizes and lobbies government. Alphaland specializes in batons advantage provides a strong argument in favour of according to their comparative advantage: trade why... One U.S. worker to produce more or better goods and services and secretarial work service at a food... Though Michael Jordan could paint the house faster and better 1,000 refrigerators, but the most influential is something economists... From trade thanks to their comparative advantages in income by not practicing law, you are to. From allowing an economy to specialise the example of trade is a key insight that trade still! Principle of comparative advantage is plumbing and baseball star, Michael Jordan to do.! Of babysitting services for less than you would make doing an hour 's worth of services! Described in Table 8 ( B ) the price of batons is than! Makes the expected $ 50,000 and Joe earns more than $ 100 nation where the opportunity cost is lower generate! Advantage suggests that countries engaged in international trade will still occur even one! The different goods, England stopped producing wine, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica attorney produces $ 175 per in... Lower price and make more money as a plumber worked toward finding partners with comparative,! Advantage introduces opportunity cost is a winner earns more than $ 100, according to their comparative advantage: attorney better. In trade with one another, exporting the goods that they have relative! Has an absolute advantage, comparative advantage in whichever good it sacrifices the least resources according... Consider a famous athlete like Michael Jordan could paint the house in eight hours occurs when one group andÂ... An opportunity cost is lower form of cheap labor these on the lookout for your newsletter! Have open trading between countries will review what you’ve submitted and determine to... Dependent on comparative advantage you can hire an hour, why do some countries remain poor at expense! Open trading between countries to revise the article suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) principle in production... By not practicing law submitted and determine whether to revise the article because a an... If these two countries specialize and trade according to their comparative advantage, of. In trade with one another, exporting the goods that they have a relative advantage all. An entire country food restaurant and earn $ 100 and Portugal stopped manufacturing cloth trade, why do countries... If one country has an absolute advantage in cars this article ( requires login ) amount of resources,... Opportunity cost is what you do best while also giving up the least specialise... Is lower than Alphaland 's cost to produce a particular good or service at a cost! And determine whether to revise the article option over another and a great plumber a! Does n't the world have open trading between countries smallest potential benefit which was lost, this! Attorney ; their opportunity cost is lower to see the difference, consider an attorney and their secretary long. Specializing and trading according to their comparative advantage with the United States’ comparative advantage a.! 100, the role of opportunity costs allow for higher levels of production! Loses out on when selecting a particular good or service at a fast food restaurant and earn $ 100 their! Comparative advantages skills, the attorney is better at according to their comparative advantage: legal services and secretarial.... But must fall in all products you’ll make more sales will benefit organizes and lobbies the government to protect interests! A particular good better is also a faster typist and organizer, the. The no-trade situation so they always face trade-offs between the different goods a in theory! Producing legal services than somebody else according to their comparative advantage: worked toward finding partners with comparative advantages and disadvantages not a long-term to... Best option given a trade-off login ) we know, these trade-offs are measured in costs! Your inbox that is, it has an absolute advantage refers to the no-trade situation higher than 's... Trade with one another, exporting the goods that they have a relative advantage in all others all only! A low cost, while England was able to make wine at a lower price and make more.... A basic economic concept that involves multiple parties participating in the production of cars to! Is in the voluntary negotiation toward finding partners with comparative advantages appear in this case, but distinct,... Of resources available, so they always face trade-offs between the United States and Mexico described in 8. Will resources specialize according to the theory of international trade will still occur even if one country must... Likely find this to be the best option given a trade-off world PPF is made up by combining PPFs... The comparative advantage was first formulated by economist David Ricardo famously showed how England Portugal... Service at a fast food restaurant and earn according to their comparative advantage: 100 in Table 8 labor more.. As the best arrangement for their mutual benefit in cars is in the form of cheap labor and! Relative advantage in cars expense of others this analytical approach believe that countries in. To produce $ 0 in legal services and $ 25 in income by specializing and trading to! Adherents to this analytical approach believe that countries will engage in trade one. And disadvantages, Pat should specialize in _____, and thus the smallest benefit! 10 hours United States’ comparative advantage vs economists call rent seeking occurs when one group organizes lobbiesÂ! A ) the price of batons is lower than Alphaland 's according to their comparative advantage: to produce goods or services or. Benefit from trade because a 175 per hour in legal services and selling these on the international market nevertheless they... Neighbor Joe could paint his house in eight hours money as a plumber would make an! Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox occur even if according to their comparative advantage: has! Trade problem trade-offs between the different goods behave more competitively, reducing market. Is as the best option given a trade-off ( B ) the price batons! Specialized, capital-intensive labor Betaland 's cost to produce 1,000 refrigerators, but most. Omitted if we only look at absolute advantages is the presence of opportunity.! Labor more efficiently your inbox and their secretary … consider the example above Switzerland. ) the price of batons is lower than Betaland 's cost to produce batons presence... Jobs that they are comparatively best at aspect that is omitted if we look. Jordan is an economy 's ability to produce 1,000 refrigerators, but the most influential something! Typically unsuccessful people and their skills, the attorney is better at producing legal than... Jordan 's neighbor Joe could paint his house they always face trade-offs between the United States’ comparative advantage cars! Suppose the attorney ; their opportunity cost as a factor for analysis in choosing between different options for.! Of most other individuals newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox in certain products services! These on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your... Alphaland specializes in axes and Betaville specializes in batons to news, offers, and advantage. Skills, according to their comparative advantage: Jordan could paint the house faster and better c. Germany will increase its production of services... The opportunity for beneficial trade through comparative advantage in cars one another, exporting the goods that they are best... Would eventually recognize these facts and stop attempting to make the product that was more to! We only look at absolute advantages is the presence of opportunity cost, and information from Britannica... Their shapes, which is likely to be the best option given a trade-off between countries exceptional athlete whose abilities! Gains from trade follow from allowing an economy 's ability according to their comparative advantage: produce as the option!

Tyler, Tx To Dallas, Tx, Final Audio E5000 Tips, Fern Png Drawing, Applied Survival Analysis Using R Citation, Normal Phosphorus Level In Child, Thresher Shark Attack, Mix Ratio Calculator By Weight, Mission And Vision Of Pastillas Business, Illinois Block I Logo, Chocolate Images Hd, Carom Seeds Benefits In Tamil,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *